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白河攀岩基金

关于泰国攀岩与rebolt

http://thaitaniumproject.com/?p=44 泰国的rebolt计划
http://books.google.com.hk/books ... 20bolts&f=false 这个就是在guidebook里面随处可见的shamick写的书
http://www.oocities.org/wee_rocks/about.html 大名鼎鼎的wee
http://www.railay.com/railay/climbing/climbing_rebolting2.shtml shamick在工作
http://basecamptonsai.com/community_project.htm Tonsai的basecamp攀岩店
http://www.supertopo.com/climbing/thread.php?topic_id=646957 Ushba钛钉断裂事件出的讨论
http://www.ushba.com/catalog/rock.html 生产钛bolt的ushba网站,不知为什么我打不开

Think Simulation
http://thaitaniumproject.com/?p=44 这篇文章非常重要,它详细解释了海边的钉为什么会非常快就被腐蚀了,并且,你从外表是看不出来的。也就是,外表看来很好的一颗钉,可能实际上已经不能承受一个人的体重了。
Magnum doesn’t actually corrode steel. Magnum sits on the bolts and absorbs the chloride in the sodium chloride (salt) that is in the air from the close proximity to the water. The chloride is the main culprit that corrodes the steel bolts. The addition of a protective layer of chromium into the metal mixture or alloy is what makes steel into stainless steel. Chloride is able to eat through the chromium layer into the now unprotected normal steel to cause a very serious type of corrosion called stress corrosion cracking (SCC). What makes SCC very significant in our bolts is that you do not always see rust on the outside of the bolt. This presents climbers in Thailand with a difficult situation when choosing to clip or not to clip a bolt. Climbers may find the rusty bolt they do not want to clip is totally fine with the rust just on the surface and the perfectly shiny bolts may have SCC happening deep inside the bolt where a crack or cracks run all the way through the bolt and brake under body weight. This logically will lead to the unfortunate conclusion that there is no way to tell if the bolt is bad or not.——结论是,不要仅仅从外表评价一颗钉是不是安全

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born from the simulation
http://thaitaniumproject.com/?p=44
    又是一篇错误百出的文章,不看还少学一点错误的概念,否则又要花不少时间揪错。这里我给一个概要吧:

1、海边的盐雾对不锈钢的腐蚀很严重,材料不仅腐蚀,而且侵蚀,这样导致了不锈钢bolts的使用寿命短,不安全。
2、钛合金抗海水/海边盐雾腐蚀
3、所以海边路线上所有的bolts  要换成钛合金的

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回复 1# 自由的风

Ushba USA 早几年就关门了。我不知道这个josh从哪里搞的Ti bolts.

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又是一篇错误百出的文章,不看还少学一点错误的概念,否则又要花不少时间揪错。这里我给一个概要吧: ...
jane 发表于 2012-2-8 01:47



    愿闻其详。我还以为讲的挺有道理的呢。
基本结论我知道,但是内部是如何锈蚀的,我很感兴趣。如果是空气中的盐雾,那应该是外面先锈蚀啊

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本帖最后由 自由的风 于 2012-2-8 10:23 编辑

http://www.supertopo.com/climbin ... sg=118438#msg118438
另外,所谓marine grade steel就是316不锈钢

来看一些怵目惊心的图片吧




http://www.upskillclimbing.com/2 ... r-for-thailand.html 不锈钢胶钉也未必靠谱啊

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猜猜应该把快挂挂那一个bolt?

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回复 5# 自由的风

我找一找看,有合适的资料会发到这里。

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钛合金在海洋环境中使用的优越性。这篇比较科普,所述内容属实。我再找一些更有深度的综述文章贴上来。

ItemFileA3322.pdf (180.53 KB)

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马耳他岛一条线路上的bolt失效.
WARNING – BOLT FAILURE DUE TO MARINE CORROSION
its been reported that a bolt has failed at the base of the route Freebird 6b on Red Wall, at the Blue Grotto in Malta. It failed when loaded with only the partial bodyweight of three climbers belayed to it who were getting ready to start the route. Unfortunately, the bolts placed on this route are stainless steel and NOT suitable for a marine environment. It is therefore suggested that this route is not climbed until the bolts are replaced with 316 marine grade stainless steel. For more info about corrosion of bolts in a marine environment and related safety issues check out: http://climbing.about.com/od/sta ... liffBoltFailure.htm

Stevie Haston的评论:
A bolt failed on the island of Malta this week, august 2012. This particular  bolt was only placed circa 5 years ago. More information can be had from the Maltese climbing clubs, but I would like to add a couple of things. The bolt that failed was stainless steel just like in the photo above, these bolts are now thought to be unsuitable for a Marine situation. The bolts that have been placed more recently are better in that they are more suitable for a sea cliff. How suitable is still something of a question even to me, so please take care with all bolts on Malta, and on coastal cliffs and indeed anywhere.

There seems to be a general feeling that climbing and bolts etc should be 100% safe, I do not agree with this and think it is hog wash. It is you who are responsible for your safety, if in doubt don't climb a route.

You cannot tell if a bolt is safe by looking at it. Bolts even of a suitable grade i.e. 316 stainless can be weakened, the only grade of metal in the splash zone (in Malta this is 40 meters) which could be thought 'bomb proof' is surgical grade stainless, this grade is very , very expensive!

It is prudent to at least test bolts before you trust your life to them. In Marine locations especially the first 20 feet (the swell zone) I would jump test them, if in doubt. The splash zone is an ill defined place but I have seen the air saturated in some sea cliffs for long periods, beware!

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回复 5# 自由的风
高中化学里的原电池反应。
简单来说光有水和纯铁,腐蚀,既原电池反应是不会发生的。
必须有两种活性不同的金属,电解液,氧气。
一般来说是铁是活性最高的,铁和其他惰性金属杂质,组成原电池。
弄成了牺牲阳极(铁)的阴极(杂质)保护法,铁被牺牲了。
杂质一般来说是分布非常均匀的,腐蚀应该均匀在表面发生。
但一旦表面有小洞形成,这时电解液,就是潮气起了决定性作用。
表面的水分日晒,风吹很快干了,但小洞里的潮气就慢了。
时间长了,形成恶性循环,就是侵蚀了。

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