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5月7号,一哥们在Yosemite下降时坠落100米致死

原文在这里

他们的计划是:一根11主绳,一根6的辅绳,先一个哥们用Cinch单绳降,然后另一个哥们改一下anchor用ATC双绳降,等两人都到下一anchor后抽绳再重复以上操作。

结果,似乎是下降系统的绳结使用不正确,导致用Cinch的哥们挂了。

没太看明白,哪位给讲讲?

Think Simulation
单绳下降的那位没有设置biner block,绳结拉过rappel ring...

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born from the simulation
JesseM

Social climber
Yosemite
               
May 9, 2010 - 03:02pm PT
This is truly tragic news. My condolences to the partner, friends, and family. From what I hear about Brian, he will be sorely missed.

I was off the day of the accident, and was not a part of the body recovery or investigation. However, I talked at length yesterday to the investigating ranger, and have a good understanding of what happened.

At today's climber coffee at Camp 4 we had a long discussion about the accident. With an accident like this we must take the time to learn what we can from the incident even though it is hard to talk about the loss of someone from our community. Everyone I talked to today at Camp 4 really feels for the friends and family of Brian.

As has been mentioned in this thread, Brian was using the "biner block" or, as Peter Haan called it, the "Reepschnur" method of single line rappelling. The link that Scared Silly provided has a good image of the basic idea of the system accept for the knot used to connect the lead line and tag line.

Here it is again:

http://www.canyonwiki.com/wiki/index.php/'biner_block

Edit: Slobmaster posted the petzl image, which is even better. Do they have a name for it?

Since the partner seems willing to give his on account of the accident, I won't go into the details. You guys already understand the basic nature of the accident. Like Brat said, Brian apparently always tied the backup 8 on a bite and clipped it to the single rappel line with a locking-biner, and this time he did not. Then, while Brian was rappelling, the knot pulled through the anchors. They were rappelling from the anchors on the ledge after the 3rd pitch of Serenity Crack.

FYI: The webbing and rap-rings were shock-loaded during the fall. They have been replaced.

I am also available for further questions. Call or email if you like.

Jesse McGahey
Climbing Ranger
Yosemite NP
jesse_mcgahey@nps.gov
209.372.0360

本来想用的是图片所示的系统,实际没有圆圈标注的八字和快挂,结果绳结直接穿过挂片。。。
未命名.jpg
2010-5-22 22:35

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遇难者的搭档写的报告

本帖最后由 bince 于 2010-5-22 15:50 编辑

谢谢,

这是遇难者的搭档写的报告,真是一个后果严重的疏忽。

绿色文字部分感觉怪怪的。


Japhy May 10, 2010 - 01:47pm PT

Dear friends and members of the climbing community,

Thanks to everyone for your thoughts, for your support, and for sharing your compassion for the tragic accident that unfolded.

Brian Ellis is one of my closest friends, and my main climbing partner for five years. We were descending from Sunset Ledge after completing the Serenity-Sons link up when the accident happened.

It has been incredibly difficult trying to process what happened, but I feel that it is important to learn from this tragedy, and to ensure that it never happens again.

Here is my analysis on the cause of the accident:

The system:

The rappel system we used is also known as the "Reepschnur" method, where the 6 mil tag line is used as a pull cord. The lead line was a 10.2 mil. At each rap station, the two ropes were joined together with an overhand knot ("EDK"). This was backed up by an additional overhand knot, nested and dressed cleanly right next to the primary knot, with long tails (always at least 12").

The knot was tied so that the load was on the 10.2 mm lead line (i.e, the knot was on the side of the pull cord). A backup knot - figure 8 on a bight - is just below the two overhands on the 6mm, and clipped with a locking carabiner to the lead line. This photo illustrates it perfectly.



Brian insisted on using his Cinch to rappel on. It was his favorite device. As others have noted, using the Cinch (or Gri-gri), you HAVE to do a single-rope rappel. He rappelled first with his Cinch, and after he clipped in to the next anchor, I remove the backup knot and carabiner (so that there's no carabiner whizzing in space towards us, and so that it doesn't get snagged while pulling). I rappel next with an ATC. This is basically our system. I have a few more words below regarding this system.

What caused the system to fail?

The primary cause of failure was that the knot passed through the rappel rings as Brian was mid-rappel on the single 10.2 lead line. This is something that is unthinkable to a lot of us. Anyone who has ever tied two ropes together to rappel knows this.

Still, the unthinkable happened this time, and it was critical that the backup knot with a locking carabiner was present to jam up against the rappel rings. Unfortunately, this is where the BIGGEST MISTAKE was made. When Brian set up this system and tied the knots (I was coiling the ropes in the meantime preparing for tossing), he forgot to tie the backup knot. When I checked the system for him, I too, committed the same mistake and only observed the main knot. He checked it a THIRD time, and made the same oversight.

The only explanation I have for this oversight is distraction and complacency. Brian MAY not have been 100% focused on the task (there were several things going on... party coming behind us and he was excited to take photos of the leader below... a few moments earlier on the last pitch, we were rudely and inconsiderately passed up by a speeding simul-climbing party; this bothered both of us considerably). I am equally guilty of the same distraction and complacency for not having noticed the absence of the backup.

The accident was NOT equipment failure (the rope, Cinch, tag line, all performed the way they were supposed to).
The accident was NOT knot failure (the knot was tied properly, with long tails).
The accident was NOT anchor failure (the bolts, webbing, and rings - albeit a little larger than chains - were not faulty).

During every single rappel that Brian and I have done together with this system, we have tied the backup knot. The principle overhand knot had NEVER passed through the rings before. However, the one time it was forgotten, sadly, was when it was most critical.

You don't lose often when climbing, but when you do lose... you lose big. I'm just absolutely devastated by this harsh lesson.


Other thoughts:

Brian introduced this system to me several years ago after learning about it on the internet. We were both partly inspired by this video. When doing the research on this system, there are several issues that I didn't discover.

The first is that, although Brian was using the system properly for a single-rope rappel (yes, I know the backup knot was not tied when the accident happened), when I hopped on rappel with an ATC, I was using the system improperly. Although I'm rappelling on both the 10.2 line, and the 6mm cord, only the 10.2 line is properly rated to withstand the force temperatures that a friction device can create. Pull cords of that diameter have a much lower melting point.

The second is that there are variations in rappel ring sizes. The smallest ones (like rappel chains) are just about impossible to pass the knot through. However, the larger models, like the ones atop Sunset Ledge (or even things like Cold Shuts or Mussy Hooks), warrant that the knot is ABSOLUTELY never going to pass through. Additionally, the 10.2 line tied with an EDK to a 6mm cord makes a smaller knot than two 10mm lines tied together.

All of these factors make the rappel system more complicated, which means that more steps need to be taken to ensure that it is bomb-proof. If a system requires Steps 1,2,3, and 4, it is critical that ALL the steps are performed even though Steps 3 and 4 may only be back-ups. Simpler setups that require fewer steps, as a result, should be the ones that people should be using. There is less room for error in simpler setups.

Brian and I tested the knot atop Sunset Ledge and made sure that it wouldn't pass through the rings. When he started rappelling on the single line, he descended about 15 ft, locked off his Cinch and started taking photos of the leader on the P3 crux of Serenity for about 10 minutes. While he was taking photos, he moved a bit to the left, and then to the right to check out the climber. Then, after having spent about 10 minutes taking photos, he went back to descending the single line. This is when I heard a pop and the sound of the rope whizzing. I tried to grab it with my bare hands and held on tightly as long as I could. My instinct even tried to wrap it around my waist for an emergency brake, but the rope just burned through my hand.

The shock load that Jesse talks about is the result of the tag-line getting tangled up and getting jammed up on the rings. The heat generated on the rings then burned the 6mm line, and a clump of the tag line fell on the ledge where I was.

It is so ironic that the day we were climbing was the first time that I convinced Brian to bring along an ATC to do the rappels on. I never do single-rope rappels, and am scared of rappels in general, so I have tried for a long while to get Brian to rappel with a traditional friction-device. The ATC was in his backpack.

I have asked myself "what would I do differently?" so many times. It hurts so bad to think that this was preventable. I hope that we can take this lesson to heart and learn from it. When reading whats out there on the forums (RC, Mountainproject, Summitpost, etc.) the subtle factors that led to this system failure (knot passing through, variations in rap ring sizes, knot size for 10mm/6mm combo) are not discussed very thoroughly.

I have many thoughts about the accident, and am available if anyone wants to learn more. Please email me directly: japhyd[at]gmail[dot]com.

I want to extend a deep and sincere thanks to everyone involved in the rescue. My condolences go out to Brian's family, his girlfriend, his pet bunnies, and all of his friends.

Brian made the world a better place with his presence, and I miss him dearly.

Japhy Dhungana

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本帖最后由 mh 于 2010-5-24 09:54 编辑

基本意思是,Brian用单绳下降,下降绳子是10.2mm攀登绳,用来拉这个绳子的是6mm辅绳。两根绳子用EDK(很常用的最简单的单结)连接起来。用主绳下降时锚点上的下降环会卡住连接结,让人从主绳单绳下降,最后一个人下来前拆去主锁,所有人都下来后拉辅绳回收所有绳。

他们从来都按规矩辅绳上打一个8字结,上面用主锁套在主绳上,作为两根绳子连接结被从下降环拉出危险的失效备份。这次Brian忘了打备份结,两个人确认检查,由于干扰竟都没有发现问题。而这次正好连接结发生了从下降环中拉了出来。辅绳在Brian坠落时从下降环中抽过,期间还团成一团,堵载了下降环上,可是下降环的高温把辅绳融了,Brian坠地。

这里有不少碰巧的地方,比如他们多年攀登唯一一次连接结从下降环被拉过去的一次正好也是忘了打备份结的这次,活下来的同伴Japhy出事那天本想说服Brian用向他一样用ATC使用双绳下降,但没来得及。

除了碰巧的事,非碰巧的因素更值得讨论,比如人们了解比较少的攀登方面(比较细的辅绳连接主绳进行单绳下降)需要更多了解,还有我同意Japhy关于双绳下降的不放心,cinch和GriGri只能用来单绳下降,而单绳下降比双绳的确平添了一个可出大问题的地方。还有Brian中间停了10多分钟拍摄旁边路线上的领攀人,中间左右还荡了几次。

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"用主绳下降时锚点上的下降环会卡住连接结,让人从主绳单绳下降,最后一个人下来前拆去主锁,所有人都下来后拉辅绳回收所有绳。"

你看那图,最后一个人下来前不用去拆主锁的,下来了直接拉cord就行了。

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技术上,他们用的这种方案还可以改进。
1,8字结可以打在主绳上,他们的方案是打在辅绳上,这样结更大,更难通过下降环;
2,最后一人下降时把主锁从绳子下降端取出并留在8字结上,作备份,抽动的辅绳可以连在锁里或8字结上,如Jane所说不解锁直接拉存在主辅绳缠绕的问题,多圈之后就拉不动了。
这样下降的好处是绳子轻了非常多,很值得采用。
推荐使用,攀岩时用这样的绳子组合,35-40m主绳,35米辅绳,可以适应几乎所用线路的攀爬!
主观上出错没招。

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首先说一下上面4l楼的图是Petzl网站上的示意图用来说明忘了打的备份结是什么样的,不是出事用的系统。

Japhy说了为什么取下锁:I remove the backup knot and carabiner (so that there's no carabiner whizzing in space towards us, and so that it doesn't get snagged while pulling)。取下锁是为了不让锁从高空砸下来,也不容易在拉绳时卡在什么上。这两点都是很有道理了,第一点是为了下面人安全也为了保护锁,第二点是多段攀登后下降的大问题,因为这个问题我总是尽量用一根绳子单绳下降。

要注意的环节越多主观出错的机会就越多。使用简单系统减少主观错误。我同意在主绳上打结不容易被拉过下降环,要是我一定要这么用也会这么做,而且最后人下来要记得把备份结拆了,因为这样整个结个头也大多了,就是在花岗岩上绳子也可能卡在缝或槽里(不过花岗岩比起阳朔那些长着"倒刺"的喀斯特石头简直是好弄得不知多少倍。)

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这样的方式对效率提高或安全性提高有很大帮助吗?
2人只带了1个ATC?

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锁砸下来的问题我不担心,最极限的情况是主绳刚好够长,锁开始自由下落时离人头顶3-5米,锁不会砸坏人或撞坏自己,再考虑余绳在岩壁上的摩擦就更不是问题;
如果有卡在线路上的问题就要避免用这样的方式。去熟知的干净线路就可以用主绳加辅绳的组合。
这样的方式在攀爬时开线时可以只带Grigri,不带ATC。
好处多多,重量减轻1-1.5公斤(1天补给的重量),攀爬时绳子易于管理,不用每段抽好多空绳。

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w2: 是说Brian他们只带一个ATC吗?Brian钟爱cinch看来保护也用这个。

小河: 一般拉下一半绳子就多少开始自己往下落了吧,离头顶还有20多米呢,不过倒不是自由落体。我觉得7mm辅绳这么用还行(我就有一根,但只是爬山用),6mm基本就是做抓结用。

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我用6mm的辅绳和主绳结在一起下降(用ATC双股),但是注意 辅绳没有什么延展性,所以要用长15%左右的辅绳。而且最好戴手套,用 自锁结备份。

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4楼的方法抽绳时极易绞绳, 吃过2回苦头, 打死也不用了.

一个ATC 还不如半包牛奶重.

主绳+辅绳不适合长pitch的线路. 我和飞哥爬智取华山, 第1个pitch飞哥爬了50多米. 另外, 有时用主绳代替扁带做保护站时, 也会用掉一段主绳, 很难事先计划好.

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我也觉得4楼这种方法不怎么样,为了轻的话,我不如用8.3的双绳或者孪生绳爬。11和6的两根绳子,未必就比两根8.3的双绳更轻。两根8.3的双绳,下降还更容易些。
自从我07年底摔伤,我就觉得下降比攀爬更危险。

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我也觉得4楼这种方法不怎么样,为了轻的话,我不如用8.3的双绳或者孪生绳爬。11和6的两根绳子,未必就比两 ...
自由的风 发表于 2010-5-25 02:17

赞同,不同方式有不同的人使用.这个方法我私人看来一般,再说从轻快来说,1个GRIGRI可比省下来的重量要大,而且必须面对潮湿低温环境带来的不可测安全因素.

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本帖最后由 mh 于 2010-5-25 03:16 编辑
我用6mm的辅绳和主绳结在一起下降(用ATC双股),但是注意 辅绳没有什么延展性,所以要用长15%左右的辅绳 ...
jane 发表于 2010-5-24 15:27


你的主绳是多粗的?这么下降受力的主要是主绳吧?两根绳子差别大容易握不住细绳。要是让6mm受力那也着实让我觉得恐怖,有什么东西划几下大概就完了。50米6mm比7mm轻500多克,确实也不是小数。想想,我还是用我的7mm吧。

当两个绳子不一样长时,我都是下了一些距离后后把短的那边往下拽,直到底下差不多一样长再接着下。可能的话还有意把上面的连接绳结拽到能看得见的地方,以防后来卡住。我不向别人推荐这种复杂操作。(加一句,要是绳子是挂在扁带上,拽绳子可一定要小心!)

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甘叔拼命的练习上升
不如多练习速降

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本帖最后由 小河 于 2010-5-25 03:27 编辑

To mh:3-5m对应我说的30米高度线路,实际使用都是这个样子(因岩壁环境不同而差异巨大)。下降顶上2把锁,2锁的摩擦力与重力平衡时左右绳长比例2:1(对应你说的60米下降20m自由滑动);因抽绳过锁导致的扭转进一步增加过锁的阻力和岩壁摩擦力,再考虑岩壁摩擦力。这些因素作用导致我遇到的结果。
to 风:不会是11和6的组合,追求轻量化一定会用最轻的能用的绳子,比如9.3和6的组合,同时还兼顾到绳子的耐磨性。下降绝对是最危险的事情,不管是岩壁上冰壁上还是山上。我们曾经用过的石头nuts下降,那是多么的扣人心弦!
所谓"Reepschnur" method辅绳“单边”下降方式,兼容ATC和Grigri。
也许今天的小众会成为明天的主流。不信你问问Gump在完美心情用40m绳子的感受。

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ATC应该是重量最轻的保护器了,但有很多人钟爱可以方便自锁,可以随时放开双手的保护器,比如遇难这哥们,喜欢随时挂在绳子上搞点业余爱好,为此愿意使用稍重的器材和较复杂的操作。这就是个人选择了。

个人觉得操作越简单越好,所使用系统一目了然很重要,以前用过几回粗细不同,甚至新旧不同的绳子组合下降,手感的差别那是相当的大。还是能不这样用就不了。

ATC在下降时打个抓节也能随时停,麻烦不到哪里去。

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本帖最后由 w2 于 2010-5-25 09:07 编辑

回复 18# 小河
这东西,仁者见仁,智者见智.
自己琢磨明白,操作熟练就是.
但我还是认为这方法对于成熟路线(你知道路线信息或者有TOPO)比较靠谱.
仅供讨论:对于陌生路线(登山,大石头),一旦路线攀爬出现需要转折,摆荡,横移的情况.你那40M会瞬间成为?M,满PITCH瞬间成为?PITCH.节省的那点重量反而拖累了效率.
在华山,LEO先锋时带2条60M10MM绳,不解,问之,答:"未知路线,重点儿,但耐磨,可操作空间大.",BIGWALL有很多小技巧,来节省每段的时间,但小技巧看各人掌握发挥(靠线路累积的经验),慎推广.所以很多BIGWALL CLIMBER都有自己的一套.
另外,绳子潮湿,有雪冰,冻住的时候用单绳自锁保护器下降无异于玩火.这点看来MAMMUT的SMART好处多多.

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to  W2: 的确不熟的路线带2条60米/10mm的绳子比较靠谱。用上升器抓 10mm以上的我比较放心。Chris McNamara也是这么推荐的。

to mh: bluewater出6mm的search line, 号称比尼龙绳防割(试了的确如此),2500磅力断裂强度。说明了因为太细用来下降不符合规定(美国这里消防队/军队的规定是7.5mm),所以你要这么做他们不负责。我的体会是这么做神经比较紧张,1)很细,就是戴了手套也难拉住 2)比较缠;3)还是太细。

神经紧张容易劳累,我琢磨其实还不如多背2磅。

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去年我们在yosemite爬完了Royal arches,用3楼图示的方法用一根主绳连接一根tag line 下降,降了大约8段吧,实在是很累。累的是神经,因为每降一段都要重复检查,tag line很细,又怕缠,所以强烈地不推荐。还不如用2根绳子打结直接降,省事多了。

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自从我07年底摔伤,我就觉得下降比攀爬更危险。
自由的风 发表于 2010-5-25 02:17


看到这里很是悲伤。刘喜男、李红学、武鹏,严冬冬也算一个,都是在下山时出的事。

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回复 23# mh


    伍鹏,他的名字很多次被写错。

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抱歉,我总是记不清,还有王滨的名字,我连裂缝的名字是什么也只是近来在知道。这次后不会再写错了。

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正好最近开始用tagline, 6mm sterling,双绳降。不知道楼上各位大神现在观点如何?

我现在还在新手村,所以只会爬成熟线路,tagline用来在前人打好的保护站下降,目前都是梅陇或者钢环,双绳,单结,留1米绳尾,拉紧。

我对下降有非常大的恐惧,主要是:超级担心错过保护站,特别是人悬空,看绳尾范围内,没有见到保护站的情况。

前些天在red rock的crimson chrysalis线路就是如此。如果不是看到前面一组人下降到左侧,知道保护站大概位置,我会玩了命的找中间30米左右的那个保护站,而不是60米附近的目标保护站。

反正每次如果从下降点看不到下一个保护站,就不由自主的紧张

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原來是一則很舊的新聞!

但我是最近才接觸到這個方法!沒想到就看到這個。找到http://www.rockandice.com/lates-news/reepschnur-review 的這個。感覺一看就明白。

還是很高興能搞明白!

多謝!

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